Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is defined as any waste generated by household, commercial and/or institutional activities and is not hazardous. Depending upon the source, MSW is categorized into three types: Residential or household waste which arises from domestic areas from individual houses; commercial wastes and/or institutional wastes which arise from individually larger sources of MSW like hotels, office buildings, schools, etc.; municipal services wastes which arise from area sources like streets, parks, etc. MSW usually contains food wastes, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, glass, metals, wood, street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas.
As per MSW 2016 revised rule:
“Solid waste” means and includes solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitary waste, commercial waste, institutional waste, catering and market waste and other nonresidential wastes, street sweepings, silt removed or collected from the surface drains, horticulture waste, agriculture and dairy waste, excluding industrial waste, bio-medical waste and e-waste, battery waste, radio-active waste generated in the area under the local authorities and other entities .”
Solid waste management (SWM) is an organized process of storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal of solid waste. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods, varied transportation equipment, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclable material reduction of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting and disposal at sites.
The solid waste management technology chosen for rural areas as well as towns is composting & mixed garbage segregation technology and it includes segregation as well as windrow system and composting process and various treatment to effectively meet the need of management of municipal solid waste and fit into framework of MSW 2016 rules while doing so.
Various processes and treatments are performed which are described in detail in “B” section of the technical part of proposed project.
The process described below should be carried out by proposed project. This process is most effective and most importantly has no health and pollution hazards on long term basis. It also described as most preferred process for management of municipal solid waste in the Swacchh Bharat Mission’s overview part 1 for treatment on collective waste of large quantum as compared to other technologies for large quantum waste treatment.
“Leachate” means the liquid that seeps through solid waste or other medium and has extracts of dissolved or suspended material from it.
This is the very initial step in treatment of waste. As soon as the waste collected from whole town reaches the site it is unloaded at given area. The leachate removal process is carried out.
It is the hydraulic push-pull/press system in which the waste is pressed so that the leachate is drained out of the waste and is sent to a treatment system through opening.
There are two types of leachate treatment plant of which we will install one as per the demand of customer:-
- NGAD bio digester with reed bed system
- Moving bio-reactor bed system.
For 5 ton/ day generation of waste we prefer to install moving bio-reactor bed system.
Leachate Process Flow Chart
Dry waste from domestic municipal services and institutional sources and wet waste from the same sources are unloaded at two different sections (assuming that the garbage is segregated at source into two categories viz. wet waste & dry waste). If not so the whole mix garbage is unloaded at given area
We are very much aware that the waste has foul and bad odor due to the contamination by bacteria.
We spray bio-enzymes which is odour control liquid in simple language on it so as to make it odorless and vanish health damaging bacteria’s, the insects and flies which may get created over this garbage to make it free from foul as well as to restrict the pollution of air and safe handling of the unloaded material taken into consideration the health aspects the de fouling process is carried out.
Shredding unit is used to degrade or cut the large parts into small sizes preferably the parts are grated into 5mm- 7mm pieces. The concept behind installation of the organic shredding system is the smaller is the organic material size greater is the rate of decomposition of material.
In this process the waste from kitchen like chicken bones, fish bones, cauliflower, mango seeds, vegetables, and fruit peels, leftover etc. Harder things such as thicker branches, coconut ,wooden plank or object etc. and fibrous things such as Tender coconuts, bigger bones, etc. are grated
Organic shredder Flow Chart
After leachate discharge the heaps or windrows are formed on windrow platform which are made under windrow shed at the site. The windrows are of height 4 ft.
The bio culture is sprayed over each windrow. The windrows are turned after 7 days up to three weeks i.e. the process of aeration and composting or degradation of elements is of 21 days cycle.
Regular turning of windrows is done with spraying of bio- culture and enzymes for decomposition process. The regular turning initiates the thermophilic stage to be maintained.
This 21 day cycle is done for volume reduction of waste as well as its decomposition. After completion of 21 days the biologically processed waste is forwarded for next treatment.
The windrow decomposition process works under low temperatures but at a slower pace. The time of decomposition may be increased by 7-10 days.
Windrow Process Flow Chart
Heat exchanger system is specially designed for the low temperatures as in the Jammu & Kashmir state where the temperature lowers below zero degrees Celsius to -10 degree Celsius. The decomposition activities of decomposers and bio-culture bacteria lower in low temperature leading to more time for composting of the waste.
Therefore, to avoid this delay in waste decomposition & degradation we are going to provide heat exchanger wherein the temperature is maintained into range of 25- 40 degree Celsius which encourages the decomposition process in lower temperatures.
The segregation machine is specially designed for handling overall Municipal Solid Waste. It segregates polythene bags, paper, pet bottles, metallic and plastic scraps and various inorganic & organic materials for further recycling process.
It segregates the waste materials in various categories. The metal separator as its name suggests separates the metal particles and components. The plastic separator separates all kind if plastic materials whether it is light or heavy in weight. There are two rejects reject one and reject two. From reject one the waste which is >=15mm thick is separated.
From reject two the waste which is >= 8 mm is separated. The dusting unit sucks the dust which may get created while segregation process due to screening process which is collected at the outlet of dusting unit.
The organic contains of the waste which is fed as an input to this machinery after windrow system process is converted into the organic compost and is obtained in two grades
- Semi-fine manure which is used for gardening and other plantation
- The final product organic fine manure which can be used for agriculture purpose
- The segregated inorganic materials are sent for recycling if they are recyclable products. Also, the materials in reject one and reject two can be used for filling if road patches, leveling of roads or can be landfill. As these materials are already well processed they will not cause any damage to environment as well as the soil and underground water sources.
- The final product or output obtained i.e. organic compost is tested by govt. labs as well as private labs. The samples of each batch are collected and the batch wise reports are obtained.
Mixed Garbage Segregation Process Flow Chart
The wet waste process is important for treatment over the wet garbage, food waste as well as the green waste.in short the segregated composting and biodegradable waste has to be treated and process has to be carried out for efficient conversion of the waste into compost and as fast as possible.
The wet waste, food waste, green waste has high moisture as well as water content. This is the reason of foul smell of the waste. There is need to de-water and drain out whole moisture content and water from the waste. This is done and then the water so obtained is sent to leachate treatment plant through path which is connected to the leachate treatment plant.
After de-watering of the waste, it is crushed and shredded in crushing system then it is added with the bio-culture and bio-enzymes. After addition the whole is mixed properly in mixer system and after proper mixing of the waste, it is filled into container or the heaps are formed which are kept for specific amount of time. Then the processed waste is segregated so as to ensure that not mere inorganic material is left or mixed in this and then the final product i.e. organic compost is obtained.
Wet Waste / Food Waste Process Flow Chart
The plastic and plastic materials obtained after segregation is processed at site or is dispatched to the recycling plant or recycler as the condition and installations at the project are.
Plastic bals formation system is the one in which the bales i.e. the collective compressed plastics are grouped to reduce its volume and then send it for further processing to recycling plant or plastic manufacturer.